Using the SAMR Model to Reflect on Technology Integration in the Classroom

The samr model is a framework to help teachers reflect on their technology integration. It categorizes learning activities into four levels – substitution, augmentation, modification and redefinition.

Substitution level technology acts as a simple substitute to classroom tools and provides no functional change. Augmentation level technology improves learning activities and significantly alters teaching practices. Modification level technology introduces a significant redesign to the lesson.


Using the samr model to reflect on how technology has been used in your classroom can be a helpful tool to identify and address pedagogical gaps. However, achieving all four of the SAMR benchmarks is not always realistic for teachers with varying technology skills.

Rather than a ladder or staircase, the samr model is more like a spectrum. On one end, technology acts as a direct tool substitute and on the other, it enables experiences that would have been impossible without it.

In the first stage, substitution, educational technology (EdTech) is used to replace a traditional tool or method in learning tasks. Having students type their responses in Microsoft Word instead of filling out a worksheet with a pen and paper is a good example of this.

In the second stage, augmentation, educational technology is used to improve the way that a task is carried out. Adding images, hyperlinks and changing text are just some examples of this. Finally, in the third stage, modification, educators use educational technology to redesign a task or make new tasks possible that were previously impossible.


The SAMR model is a framework that helps educators understand the four levels of classroom technology integration. These levels are Substitution (S), Augmentation (A), Modification (M), and Redefinition (R).

The first two phases of the model represent enhancements to learning activities that are not necessarily digital in nature, such as typing on a word processor instead of using a pencil and paper. The next phase represents changes to the teaching process, such as incorporating images into the writing process.

During the augmentation phase, classroom content stays the same, but students use technology to deliver it in a new way. This may help students engage with the content more deeply, or make it more interesting to them.

The augmentation phase can also be the point at which educators begin to create new education models that were previously impossible by traditional means. The final stage of the samr model is redefinition, which involves redesigning the entire learning task to make it more effective.


The samr model helps teachers evaluate how well technology is integrated into classroom learning. This model classifies a wide range of technology integration practices into four categories: Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition.

The first category, Substitution, refers to the use of technology to replace a traditional learning task. This can be accomplished through a variety of means, including using digital or online versions of a textbook to provide students with information on a topic.

Often, teachers will also include in-class lectures or paper worksheets as part of their lesson plans to provide students with a correlated learning experience. However, in a world where technology is advancing rapidly, these tools can be modified for digital delivery to allow for enhanced capabilities that wouldn’t be possible with paper-based materials alone.

Similarly, the last category, Redefinition, is when technology allows educators to create an entirely new educational task that would not be possible without the tool. This enables students to connect their learning to the real world and produce authentic outcomes.


The samr model is a framework that educators use to plan how they integrate classroom technology. It categorizes four different levels of technology integration, which are Substitution (S), Augmentation (A), Modification (M), and Redefinition (R).

Educators can use the samr model to guide their thinking about how they should integrate classroom technology in order to best support student learning and instructional goals. They can create activities at each level of the samr model based on what they think will meet their students’ needs and educational goals.

Teachers can also use the samr model to help them reflect on their current pedagogy and how they can evolve it. This process helps them see how and why they are using classroom technology and can also guide their future decision-making.

While the samr model is a great framework for helping teachers think about how to integrate technology into their classrooms, it does not take the place of quality instruction or instructional design. However, if used properly, it can be an invaluable tool to deepen and enhance learning.

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